Oral Medication To Cure Diabetes

Oral Medication To Cure Diabetes

Diabetic Treatment in the 21st Century:

The existing drugs are successful at first, but their glucose-lowering effects are rarely sustained over time as beta-cell dysfunction worsens.

Several novel kinds of drugs, as well as new long-acting insulin, are currently being developed. Modern treatments for diabetes mellitus, often known as type 2 or type 1 diabetes, are mostly centered on the use of prescription medicines to reduce blood glucose levels.

The Following Are Some Examples Of Modern Diabetes Treatments:

  • Amylin analog synthesized in the lab
  • Oral medications 
  • mimic incretin

Amylin Analog Synthetic:

Pramlintide, a synthetic derivative of amylin, is an injectable antihyperglycemic drug that regulates postprandial glucose levels in people with type 1 and types 2 diabetes.

Pramlintide reduces glucagon levels during meals, slows stomach emptying, and reduces hunger.

Mimicking Incretins:

[Incretin mimetics are a unique type 2 diabetes therapeutic option. Exenatide is the first drug in this class, and it is given twice a day by injection. Exenatide, in addition to enhancing glycemic management, has the distinct virtue of inducing [weight ] that appears to be sustained based on preliminary research.


Oral Agents:

Oral Medications:

Oral diabetic drugs aid the pancreas in producing more insulin, change carbohydrate absorption, reduce hepatic glycogenolysis, and/or improve insulin sensitivity. Oral antidiabetic medicines are medications that are used orally to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic individuals.

Elevated blood sugar levels are a symptom of diabetes mellitus, which is caused by an absolute or relative absence of insulin. Insulin is essential to control type 1 diabetes; if diet and exercise are ineffective, other therapies, such as oral medicine, should be used.

Oral antidiabetic medicines are medications that are taken orally to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic individuals. If diabetes cannot be controlled with other means, these oral medications are employed.

The purpose of this oral medication is to get blood glucose levels back to normal.

Blood Sugar Reduction Mechanisms:

Insulin secretion from the pancreas is stimulated.
Meglitinide, sulfonylureas
Glucose biosynthesis in the liver is reduced by biguanides. Metformin
Thiazolidinediones improve insulin sensitivity in target cells.
Acarbose and Miglitol both slow the absorption of carbohydrates from the GI tract.

There are currently five types of oral anti-diabetic medicines in use, as follows:

Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone are thiazolidinediones.

Acarbose, miglitol are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

Nateglinide and repaglinide are meglitinides.

Glimepiride, glyburide, tolbutamide, glibenclamide, and glipizide are sulfonylureas.

Metformin is a biguanide.


Thiazolidinediones Reduce insulin resistance by increasing insulin sensitivity in muscle and adipose cells. They also reduce the synthesis of glucose in the liver.
It lowers fasting blood glucose levels by 35-40 mg/dl (1.9-2.2 mmol/L).



A1C should be reduced by 0.5-1.0 percent.

The complete result takes 6 weeks to see.

Other Effects Include:

  • Edema, weight increase
  • Hypoglycemia is a state of low blood sugar (if taken with insulin or agents that stimulate insulin release)
  • In individuals with abnormal liver function or CHF, this medication is contraindicated.
  • Improves HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood: LDL levels are usually unaffected.
  • Pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone are examples of medications in this class (Avandia)

Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase:

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors stop the enzymes in the small intestine from digesting starches.


Reduce postprandial glucose peak by 40-50 mg/dl (2.2-2.8 mmol/L).

Other Side Effects:

  • Flatulence or stomach ache.

  • There is no discernible effect on lipids or blood pressure.

  • There is no weight gain (contraindicated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cirrhosis).

  • Medications in this Class: acarbose (Precose), miglitol (Glyset) Sulfonylureas: acarbose (Precose), miglitol (Glyset).

  • Endogenous insulin secretion is increased by sulfonylureas.


Endogenous insulin secretion is increased by sulfonylureas.


Fasting plasma glucose should be reduced to 60-70 mg/dl (3.3-3.9 mmol/L).
A1C should be reduced by 1.0-2.0 percent.

Other Effects:

  • Hypoglycemia is one of the side effects.
  • Weight Gain]
  • In this category, you’ll find medications.

Chorpropamide (diabinese), tolazamide, acetohexamide (dymelor), and tolbutamide are first-generation sulfonyureas.
Glyburide (Micronase, Glynase, and Diabeta), glimepiride (Amaryl), and glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) are second-generation sulfonylureas.


These activities are similar to sulfonylureas, but they are not sulfonylureas.

Repaglinide and nateglinide are two of them.

When taken orally, liver enzymes quickly digest it.

The action’s short duration and little risk of hyperglycemia.

The rest of the effect is similar to that of sulfonylureas.

Biguanides (Metformin):

  • Metformin is a biguanide
  • It inhibits gluconeogenesis.
  • Insulin secretion is not aided by this supplement.
  • It improves insulin sensitivity in the liver and muscle.
  • It results in a small amount of weight loss.

Oral Agents’ Limitations::


  • In individuals with type 2 diabetes, the effectiveness of oral medicines is limited to 5-10 years (if obesity is not treated).
  • Obesity is exacerbated by insulin, which is now the only treatment option.
  • Obesity therapy requires new ways.

Stem cell therapy can help people with diabetes.

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases that cause high blood sugar levels, either because the patient’s body does not create enough insulin or because the cells do not respond to the insulin produced.

Unspecialized cells with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types are known as stem cells. Diabetes, multiple sclerosis, heart disease, and liver illness are just a handful of the disorders that stem cells could help with. In diabetic patients, stem cells play an important role in slowing the progression of the disease. As the body’s natural insulin production restarts, this treatment entails stopping insulin injections.

11 different types of teenagers One diabetic patient was given immune-suppressing drugs before receiving a transfusion of stem cells harvested from their blood.

According to the findings, patients began producing insulin. As a result, by injecting their own stem cells, they were able to eliminate their need for insulin needles. A new strategy for replacing insulin in diabetic disease models involves putting stem cell-derived pancreatic cells in capsules beneath the skin.

The strategy is effective and causes no problems. The findings support the use of stem cells and encapsulation technology in the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes.

Stem cells are immature, unprogrammed cells that can grow into any tissue and can be obtained from people of various ages. Stem cells are the building blocks of the human body.

They’re immature cells that have the potential to develop into more than 200 different types of cells in the body, including muscle cells, blood cells, and nerve cells. Stem cells can also proliferate and replicate themselves, allowing them to repair and replace damaged or worn-out tissue.

What role do stem cells play in diabetes treatment?

When blood glucose (sugar) levels rise, beta cells in the pancreas release insulin. Insulin tells cells all over the body to take glucose from the bloodstream and absorb it.
In Type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys beta cells. Because they are insulin-insensitive or because there is too little insulin produced, cells in Type 2 diabetes are unable to absorb adequate glucose.

What Are the Advantages of Stem Cell Treatment?

  • The ability of a stem cell to self-renew and specialize into several cell types is encoded in its DNA.
  • They are found in our bodies and have a vast range of abilities.
  • There aren’t any negative effects: There is no risk of rejection or infection because it is found in the patient’s tissues or blood.
  • Experts in regenerative medicine and world-class doctors.
  • Autologous stem cell transplantation is a very affordable treatment.
  • It’s a non-surgical procedure that’s also very convenient.
    Results that can be verified

 Stem cell therapy technique.

  • Counseling is part of the stem cell therapy technique.
  • Patient selection is important.
  • Serum Creatinine USG, CBC, LFT, KFT The following tests are required: abdominal, HbA1c, C-Peptide, Sugar Charting, Echo, TMF, PFT, Viral Markers, and a general physician review.
  • PBSC (through apheresis)/fat lipaspiration/bone marrow collection
    Cells are broken down and digested.
  • Infusion of cells.
  • Instructions for care and follow-up.
  • The importance of nutrients, supplements, and exercise cannot be overstated.